parte alia ventis et dis Agrippa secundis
arduus agmen agens, cui, belli insigne superbum,
tempora navali fulgent rostrata corona.
hinc ope barbarica variisque Antonius armis, 685
victor ab Aurorae populis et litore rubro,
Aegyptum virisque Orientis et ultima secum
Bactra vehit, sequiturque (nefas) Aegyptia coniunx.
una omnes ruere ac totum spumare reductis
conuulsum remis rostrisque tridentibus aequor. 690
alta petunt; pelago credas innare revulsas
Cycladas aut montis concurrere montibus altos,
tanta mole viri turritis puppibus instant.
stuppea flamma manu telisque volatile ferrum
spargitur, arva nova Neptunia caede rubescunt. 695
Perfect Active Infintive
Operatives, you have seen in the past sentences which use the present infinitive, both in the complementary form and in indirect statements. Consider at the following examples:
Clodia vestīmenta emere amat.
Clodia loves to buy clothes.
Salvius audit conīurātiōnem esse contrā eum.
Salvius hears that there is a plot against him.
In the sentences above each of the infinitives is in the present tense. An infinitive can also be in the perfect tense. Look at the following examples:
Bellator videt Clodiam emisse vestīmenta.
Bellator sees that Clodia has bought clothes.
Bellator leōnem necāvisse vult.
Bellator wishes to have killed the lion.
In the sentences above each of the infinitives is in the perfect tense. Generally a perfect active infinitive is translated as "to have whatevered." Perfect active infinitives are very easy to recognize and are formed simply from the perfect stem of a verb + isse. Study the following example:
amāvisse = amāvī (perfect stem) - ī + isse
Remember operatives that the perfect stem of a verb is the third principal part minus -ī. If you can keep that in mind, creating the perfect infinitive is very easy. Also the perfect infinitive is used as the stem of the pluperfect active subjunctive, so, in actuality, you already know the perfect infinitive.
|aveō, avēre, -, -||[only in salutation] to be well, fare well, be happy||verb|
|commōtus, commōta, commōtum||moved, excited, aroused||adjective|
|corpus, corporis||a body||noun|
|crēscō, crēscere, crēvī, crētus||to grow, thrive, increase||verb|
|demittō, demittere, demīsī, demissus||to send down, drop, lower, put down||verb|
|ēlegāns, ēlegantis||fastidious, nice, delicate||adjective|
|fragor, fragōris||crash, noise, din||noun|
|fūnis, fūnis||a rope, sheet, line, cord||noun|
|induō, induere, induī, indūtus||to put on, dress in, assume||verb|
|iniūrius, iniūria, iniūrium||unlawful, unjust||adjective|
|inrumpō, inrumpere, inrūpī, inruptus (irrumpō, irrumpere, irrūpī, irruptus)||to break in, press in, force a way in||verb|
|īnscius, īnscia, īnscium||ignorant||adjective|
|interrumpō, interrumpere, interrūpī, interruptus||to break apart, break off, interrupt||verb|
|iūxtā||very near, close to, near to||preposition (accusative)|
|medicāmentum, medicāmentī||a drug, remedy, antidote, medicine||noun|
|mēnsis, mēnsis||a month||noun|
|moriēns, morientis||dying, falling, sinking||adjective|
|praeparō, praeparāre, praeparāvī, praeparātus||prepare, equip, make preparations||verb|
|prōtinus||forward, farther on, onward||adverb|
|solitus, solita, solitum||accustomed, usual, ordinary, common||adjective|
|timēns, timēntis||fearful, afraid||adjective|
|ūniversus, ūniversa, ūniversum||whole, entire; general, universal||adjective|
Operative, this is without a doubt one of the most exciting, not to mention influential, moments of Roman, not to mention world, history. We suggest continuing to read up on the real story of Cleopatra VII and the demise of Marcus Antonius.
In addition, you may wish to view this video courtesy of TED-Ed:
CULTURALIA Comprehension Questions
Directions: Using the CULTURALIA section of your CODEX as a guide, answer the following questions:
1. When did Antony and Cleopatra first enter into an alliance/love affair?
2. What happened in the very next year?
3. Following Octavian's marriage to Livia, describe the accusations that were levied against Antony. What was the worst in terms of Roman ideals?
4. After conquering Armenia, what three important pronouncements did Antony make at the end of his "triumph" in Alexandria?
5. Following these events, after a lengthy propaganda war, against whom did the Senate declare war? Why is this significant?
6. After Antony's death, what right did Octavian grant Cleopatra?
7. By what formal decrees was Antony's legacy tarnished forever?