M. Antonius ad Actium victus Alexandriam profugit, que a Caesare, in ultima desperatione rerum, Cleopatrae falso rumore , se ipse .
Caesar Alexandria in potestatem , Cleopatrā, ne in victoris veniret, voluntariā morte , in urbem reversus tres triumphos egit, unum ex Illyrico, alterum ex Actiaca victoria, tertium de Cleopatra, imposito fine civilibus bellis .
M. Lepidus Lepidi, qui triumvir fuerat, filius coniuratione adversus Caesarem facta bellum moliens oppressus et occisus est.
- in medio classis aeratas, Actia bella,
- cernere erat, totumque instructo Marte videres
- fervere Leucaten auroque effulgere fluctus.
- hinc Augustus agens Italos in proelia Caesar
- cum patribus populoque, penatibus et magnis dis,
- stans celsa in puppi, geminas cui tempora flammas
- laeta vomunt patriumque aperitur vertice sidus.
Operatives, in the past you have seen sentences like this:
Tiberius inquit, "Lapis est in Aegyptiō."
Tiberius says, "The Lapis is in Egypt."
Salvius putat, "Recentiī ad Rōmam vēnērunt."
Salvius thinks, "The Recentii have come to Rome."
These are direct statements, made in writing by the use of quotations. In each example, the speakers, Tiberius and Salvius respectively, are making a direct statement. They are actually saying something. Now look at these next examples in which the speaker reports what someone hears, thinks, says etc:
Tiberius dīcit Lapidem esse in Aegyptiō.
Tiberius says that the Lapis is in Egypt.
Salvius putat Recentiōs vēnisse ad Rōmam.
Salvius thinks that the Recentii have come to Rome.
These examples are called indirect statements. Sometimes called the accusative and infinitive construction, indirect statements are introduced by verbs of mental or verbal action and are then followed by a subject accusative and an infinitive. In translation, it makes sense to translate the infinitive in an indirect statement as if it were a finite verb. Look at this example:
Clodia dīcit omnēs puellās gerere pulchrās stolās.
Clodia says that all the girls are wearing pretty dresses.
In the example above, the verb dicit, a verb of verbal action, introduces the indirect statement. Omnes puellas, in the accusative case, are the object of dicit, but the subject of gerere and pulchras stolas are the object of the infinitive gerere.
Here is a list of verbs which most commonly introduce indirect statements.
arbitrārī - to think
audīre - to hear
cognoscere - to recognize
crēdere - to believe
dīcere - to say
intellegere - to know, understand
negāre - to deny
putāre - to think
scīre - to know
sentīre - to feel, perceive
sperāre - to hope
vidēre - to see
There is an important rule to remember when dealing with indirect statements and translating them. If the infinitive in the indirect statement is in the present tense, then it happens at the same time as the main verb of the sentence. If the infinitive in the indirect statement is in the past tense, then it happened before the action of the main verb of the sentence. Look at the following examples:
Recentiī vidēbant mīlitēs comprehendere cīvēs.
The Recentii were seeing that the soldiers were arresting the citizens.
In this example, although the infinitive comprehendere is in the present tense, it is translated at the same time as the main verb of the sentence, videbant, which is in the imperfect tense.
Recentiī crēdēbant mīlitēs comprehendisse cīvēs.
The Recentii were believing that the soldiers had arrested the citizens.
In this example the infinitive is translated in the past relative to the main verb of the sentence because the infinitive itself is in the perfect tense.
Operatives, it is very simple. In indirect statements, infinitives in the present tense are translated at the same time as the main verb, those is the perfect tense at a time before the main verb, and those in the future tense at a time after the main verb.
Here are a few video briefings to explore:
|adfectus, adfectūs||a state, mood, disposition||noun|
|clādēs, clādis||destruction, injury, mischief, harm||noun|
|cōnsternātiō, cōnsternātiōnis||dismay, alarm, disturbance||noun|
|exstō, exstāre,||to stand out, stand forth||noun|
|flectō, flectere, flēxī, flexus||to bend, turn around||verb|
|fūstis, fūstis||a staff, club||noun|
|immemor, immemoris||unmindful, not thinking, forgetful||adjective|
|incīvīlis, incīvīle||unmannerly, impolite, uncivil||adjective|
|mīrē||wonderfully, marvellously, strangely||adverb|
|praetereō, praeterīre, praeterīvī, praeteritus||to go by or past, to pass by; to disregard||verb|
|recēns, recentis||lately arisen, not long in existence, fresh, young, recent||adjective|
|sīc||so, thus, yes||adverb|
|trabs, trabis||a beam, timber, rafter||noun|
We think you can handle the nefarious plans of Salvius on your own, now. You might want to brush up on how things turn out for Agricola, just to have something to warn someone about.
The more important Mission Objectives in this episode, though, concern the Battle of Actium. Now is the time to get as familiar as you can with those events.
CULTURALIA Comprehension Questions
Directions: Using the CULTURALIA section of your CODEX as a guide, answer the following questions:
1. How far north in Britainnia did Agricola advance?
2. What tactics did Agricola use against the massive Caldonian army? Evaluate the effectiveness of those tactics.
3. When was Agricola recalled from Britannia? Describe the strange of his recall.
4. Think about the parallel events inside of the TSTT involving popular generals; why do you think there might have been a strained relationship between Agricola and Domitian?
1. When and where did the Battle of Actium take place?
2. Who were the commanders on each side? How large was each opposing force?
3. What were some of the events that lead up to this culminating battle? How did these events help Octavian wage a propaganda war against Marc Antony?
4. What advantage did Octavian's ships have against those of Antony?
5. Through much of the day, the battle was at a stalemate. What was the turning point in the battle?
6. Describe the final days of Antony and Cleopatra. What happened to Caesarion?