Tītyre, tū patulae recubans sub tegmine fāgī
silvestrem tenuī Mūsam meditāris avēnā;
nōs patriae fīnēs et dulcia linquimus arva.
nos patriam fugimus; tu, Tityre, lentus in umbra
formōsam resonāre docēs Amaryllida silvās. 5
O Meliboee, deus nōbīs haec ōtia fēcit.
namque erit ille mihī semper deus, illius āram
saepe tener nostris ab ovilibus imbuet agnus.
ille meās errāre bovēs, ut cernis, et ipsum
ludere quae vellem calamō permīsit agrestī. 10
Operatives, in the past you have met several different kinds of participles. Consider the following examples:
Tiberius Recentiōs in cellam cēlāntēs vīdit. -- Present active participle
Tiberius saw the Recentii hiding in the cellar.
Puer, ā puellā amātus, erat laetus. -- Perfect passive participle
The boy, having been loved by the girl was happy.
fābula tibi narrānda est. -- Future Passive participle (Gerundive)
A story must be told by you.
Now consider these examples:
nōs moriturī sumus, salūtāmus tē!
we, about to die, salute you!
Recentia Clōdia lupum vīdit, leporem oppugnātūrum.
Recentia Clodia saw the wolf, about to attack the bunny.
Recentiī nescīvērunt quid Sinistrus factūrus esset.
The Recentii did not know what Sinistrus was about to do.
The words in boldface are future active participles. Notice the different uses of the future active participle. In the first and second examples, the participle works in a completely regular fashion by modifying a noun in the sentence. However, in the third sentence, although it works regularly by modifying the noun Sinistrus, it functions as a way to express a future thought in a subjunctive verb clause. Because Latin does not have a future subjunctive, the Romans needed a way to express future ideas in subjunctive subordinate clauses. They achieved this by having the future active participle modify a noun in the subordinate clause.
|amoenus, amoena, amoenum||pleasant, delightful, charming||adjective|
|borealis, borealis, boreale||northern, about the northern wind||adjective|
|calculum, calculi||stone, small pebble||noun|
|crēdō, crēdere, crēdidī, crēditus||to loan, entrust||verb|
|dētrahō, dētrahere, dētrāxī, dētrāctus||take down, remove||verb|
|formīdulōsus, formīdulōsa, formīdulōsum||dreadful, terrible||adjective|
|gerēns, gerēntis||managing, conducting||adjective|
|mātūrus, mātūra, mātūrum||ripe, mature||adjective|
|mēns, mentis||the mind||noun|
|papȳrus, papȳrī||papyrus, paper||noun|
|perturbō, perturbāre, perturbāvī, perturbātus||to confuse||verb|
|rēctus, rēcta, rēctum||straight, direct||adjective|
|recuperō, recuperāre, recuperāvī, recuperātus||to get back, recover||verb|
|spīrō, spīrāre, spīrāvī, spīrātus||to breathe||verb|
|struō, struere, strūxī, strūctus||to place together||verb|
|tentōrium, tentōriī||a tent||noun|
Operative, if our projections are correct, in the two parts of this episode you will have two very different prompts to answer. We can't be sure of it because we're looking at the procedural code before your input takes effect in the first part, but the training mission you're on currently seems destined to put you back in-world at a place where there's a surprise waiting for you, and however that surprise takes shape we think we can project from the code what will be useful for you to know.
It seems as though the Sinistrus program is pushing the envelope here. We're concerned with the parameters which he is running, but we'll do our best to push relevant information to you. Notice the ending on bella -- that's significant. We think that you'll be able to find an overview of the civil wars in the Republican period to be useful. While of course looking back to Sulla's civil war will be beneficial, you should also look ahead to Caesar's and Octavian's many wars as well.
Our projection for the second prompt is much more pleasant. In your key-text, you'll find a classic locus amoenus passage, explore the information provided here to give you a handle on it.
CULTURALIA Comprehension Questions:
1. You are in Sulla's camp just outside of the Collantine Gate. What makes this event significant in Roman history? What is about to happen and how might that impact the future of Rome?
2. Using knowledge from previous immersions, trace the development of the conflict between the populares and optimates which lead to civil war between Marius and Sulla. Where does it begin and how did Rome get to this point?
3. Notice the endings on ‘bella civilia’ (remember: short “a” with a neuter means it is plural); the Sinistrus program seems to be asking you to evaluate the role the Lapis played in not just this war, but the many civil wars in Rome which follow. If that is the case, what does the Lapis represent in those conflicts? Is he right; could they have been prevented?
dē locō amoenō
1. What is a locus amoenus? What are the characteristics of this literary device?
2. Why do you think an author might choose to include a locus amoenus in their work?
3. Many authors at the end of the republic in Rome employed the use of a locus amoenus in their literary works. What were some possible circumstances which prompted them to write about more idyllic places?
4. Where might you find examples of a locus amoenus in modern cultural works? Can you name any specifics examples?