cum prope universam gentem Ordovicum Agricola militēsque eius cecīdissent, occāsiōnem habuit bonam ut famā horridā utēns Britannīs terrōrem daret. itaque intendit animō Monam īnsulam, cuius possessiōne supra memorāvī rēvocātum Paulinum esse rebelliōne totīus Britanniae, redigere in potestātem. sed, cum illud consilium ita subitum esset, navēs dēerant. ratiō tamen et constantia ducis militēs transvexērunt. Agricōla lēgit quōsdam mīlitēs auxiliārium, quibus optimē nantibus, mōdō quō Britannī sē suōsque equōs regant, vada nōta sint. mīlitēs sarcinās suās omnēs deposuērunt, et Agricōla illōs ita repentē inmīsit ut obstupefactī hostēs, quī classem, quī navēs, quī mare expectābant, nihil arduum aut invictum crediderint sic ad bellum venientibus.
Consider the following:
cum Tiberius vōs vidēret , vōs salutābat.
When Tiberius saw you, he greeted you.
cum Recentiī ad oppidum advēnissent , omnēs inhabitantēs eōs spectāvērunt.
When the Recentii had arrived at the town, all the inhabitants looked at them.
Operatives, previously, everytime you have seen the word cum it has been in front of an ablative noun and has been translated as the preposition "with." Now, however, you'll start to see the word cum begin a clause containing a new verb-form, called the SUBJUNCTIVE. The subjunctive has many uses, but is commonly found in a cum clause. When cum is used with a subjunctive verb, translate it "when", "since", or "because" depending on context.
Here are the forms of the subjunctive in third person for the imperfect and pluperfect.
The Imperfect Subjunctive looks like the infinitive of the verb plus the personal endings.
The Pluperfect Subjunctive can be recognized by the -isse- before the personal endings.
|adveniō, advenīre, advēnī, adventus||to arrive at||verb|
|apparō, apparāre, apparāvī, apparātus||to prepare||verb|
|bellātor, bellātōris - m||soldiers||noun|
|cōgnōscō, cōgnōscere, cōgnōvī, cōgnitus||to learn, understand||verb|
|contendō, contendere, contendī, contus||to bend||verb|
|crīnis, crīnis - m||hair||noun|
|dubitō, dubitāre, dubitāvī, dubitātus||to doubt, question||verb|
|flāvus, flāva, flāvum||blonde||adjective|
|gubernātiō, gubernātiōnis - f||pilot||noun|
|immō||by no means||adverb|
|lēgātus, lēgātī - m||legate||noun|
|ligō, ligāre, ligāvī, ligātus||tied||verb|
|medicīna, medicīnae - f||medicine||noun|
|minor, minus||less||adjective (comparative)|
|mīrāns, mīrāntis - m||an admirer||noun|
|mulier, mulieris - f||woman||noun|
|occīdō, occīdere, occīdī, occīsu||to strike down||verb|
|oppidum, oppidī - n||town||noun|
|rēctus, rēcta, rēctum||straight||adjective|
|rogātiō, rogātiōnis - f||a question||noun|
|sentiō, sentīre, sēnsī, sēnsus||to feel, to sense, to perceive||verb|
|trānsferō, trānsferre, trānstulī, trānslātus||to copy||verb|
|vīscus, vīsceris - n||entrails||noun|
Operative, it seems like the TSTT is giving a little something for everyone this time around: you've got your intercultural competency with trying to get the Brigantes to understand (gleaning some of their history from the same old sources, and any others you can find, would be a good idea); you've got your straight on dead white male Roman history with the Roman forum, the start of a true populist movement, and the indecisive Gaius Gracchus.
CULTURALIA Comprehension Questions
Directions: Using the CULTURALIA section of your CODEX as a guide, answer the following questions:
2. What about their early life prepared them for a life of politics?
3. What were the aims of their reforms? Whom did the laws impact? Why were they needed?
4. What happened to Tiberius Gracchus? Why is this symbolic of an important change in Rome?
5. In what ways did Gaius Gracchus differ in his approach than his brother? What was the outcome?
6. What are some of the perceived reasons for their failures?
Directions: Copy and paste each sentence into your attunement form, completing it with the correct word in parentheses. Then translate the sentence into English.
1. cum Tiberius Recentiōs (videt, vidēbat, vidēret), eōs salutat.
2. cum Salvia castra (invēnerat, invēnit, invēnisset), inter ancillās sē cēlāvit.
3. cum canis Agricolam (audit, audīvit, audīret), ad eum cucurrit.
4. cum Catō ōrātiōnem (habuit, habuerat, habuisset), senātorēs plauserunt
5. cum servī Tiberium (apprehendit, apprehenderant, apprehendissent), eum verberāvērunt.
6. cum tirōnēs Salviī ad Aegyptum (adveniēbant, advenīrent, adveniunt), Recentiīs appropinquābant.
7. cum militēs Rōmam (petīvērunt, petiret, petivissent), omnēs timuērunt.
8. cum custōdēs in piscīnam (cecidērunt, cecidisset, cecidissent), omnēs risērunt.
Directions: Using the immersion for 18.1, answer the following questions in complete sentences.
1. Despite fighting well, what happens to the Recentiī?
2. How far do they march through the forest?
3. Describe what happens when the Recentiī reach the town.
4. Describe the scene of the building you enter.
5. How does the Brigantes' translator speak?
6. What does Septimus want the Recentiī to learn?
7. How old is the person on the rostra?
8. Who do you meet in the forum? Why does he say he is there?