Adapted from Tacitus Dē vitā Gnaeī Iūliī Agricolae
hīs atque similibus actī, Britannī universī cum Boudiccā generis rēgiī feminā duce (neque enim sexum in imperiīs discernunt) sumpsērunt bellum. occīdunt sparsōs per castella mīlitēs, ac expūgnāvērunt praesidia. tum ipsam colōniam invāsērunt ut sedem servitūtis. nec in irā et victōriā omittunt ullum in barbarīs saevitiae genus. Paulinus tamen bonā fortunā properāvit ad Britanniam, quod nuntia dē mōtū provinciae audīverat, et unō proeliō Britanniam veterī patientiae rēstituit. multī tamen Britannī iam arma sua tenuērunt, nam Rōmānōs iniūriās ultūrōs maximae saevitiae esse scīvērunt. nam Paulinus, quamquam ēgregius cētera, sē gerēbat adroganter in superātōs, et saepe temptābat iniuriās reddere nimis saevitia. Caesar igitur mīsit Petronium Turpilianum, mītiorem imperātōrem. nescit novus imperātor iniuriās quās Britannī Romanī dedērant, itaque cōmiter paenitentiam illōrum accēpit. tum Petronius, nihil ultra ausus, Trebelliō Maximō prōvinciam tradidit.
Operatives, it's time to review participles! Remember that they're like adjectives, except that they describe something a noun is doing or something that happened to it rather than something a noun is. For example, in your transmission you saw this phrase:
mīlitēs legiōnāriī....flammās augentēs.
The present participle augentēs tells you what you saw the soldiers doing (i.e. increasing the flames). These present participles have a verb stem coming from the 2nd principal part and include the marker -ns or -nt-. It will also use a 3rd declension ending that agrees with the noun it describes!
You'll also remember that sometimes these participles can refer to a past (and often passive) action. If, for example, the legionnaires were successful, you might see the result of their work:
flammās ā legionariīs auctās
"the flames that were increased by the legionnaires" or, more literally, "the flames having been increased by the legionnaires".
Notice that this time you saw the flames after they'd been increased, not while the legionnaires were increasing them! The participle auctas describes the flames, not the legionnaires. These perfect participles use the 4th principal part of the verb and a 1st or 2nd declension ending that agrees with the noun described. In addition, they'll almost always have the letters s or t near the end.
Don't forget, though, that sometimes these perfect participles have active meanings instead of passive ones! How is an Operative to tell the difference? Look at context! Often (but not always) the more common passive version will have the preposition ā/ab meaning "by". The best thing to do is to use your judgement - you'll soon get a feel for which participles have an active sense.
|āctum, āctī - n||deed||noun|
|āgnōscō, āgnōscere, āgnōvī, āgnitus||to recognize||verb|
|ārdeō, ārdēre, ārsī, ārsus||to be on fire||verb|
|augeō, augēre, auxī, auctus||to increase||verb|
|cēpisse||to have formed (with cōnsilium) a plan||verb|
|circumeō circumīre, circumīvī(iī), circumitus||to encircle||verb|
|commendō, commendāre, commendāvī, commendātus||to introduce||verb|
|custōdiō, custōdīre, custōdīvī, custōdītus||to guard||verb|
|distrahō, distrahere, distrāxī, distractus||to pull apart||verb|
|iuvō, iuvāre, iuvī, iūtus||to delight||verb|
|pōculum, pōculī - n||drinking cup||noun|
|quīdam, quaedam, quoddam||a certain||pronoun|
|saevitia, saevitiae - f||cruelty||noun|
|saliō, salīre, saluī, saltus||to leap||verb|
|salvus, -a, -um||safe||adjective|
|trīstis, trīstis, trīste||sad||adjective|
|visūrum esse||would see||verb|
Operatives, it appears the TSTT is still registering Cogidubnus as being favorable to Rome; this training about the destruction of Carthage may be a good chance to fix that.
We'd also like you to look at a particular description of Scipio's reaction to the destruction. This is from Appian:
"Scipio, when he looked upon the city as it was utterly perishing and in the last throes of its complete destruction, is said to have shed tears and wept openly for his enemies. After being wrapped in thought for long, and realizing that all cities, nations, and authorities must, like men, meet their doom; that this happened to Ilium, once a prosperous city, to the empires of Assyria, Media, and Persia, the greatest of their time, and to Macedonia itself, the brilliance of which was so recent, either deliberately or the verses escaping him, he said:
A day will come when sacred Troy shall perish,
And Priam and his people shall be slain.
And when Polybius speaking with freedom to him, for he was his teacher, asked him what he meant by the words, they say that without any attempt at concealment he named his own country, for which he feared when he reflected on the fate of all things human. Polybius actually heard him and recalls it in his history."
Directions: Answer the following questions in complete sentences based on the key text for 17.1
1. Who led the Britons against the Romans?
2. What was so special about this person?
3. What happened to her and her people?
4. Who was the leader of the Romans at this event?
5. Why were so many Britons fighting against the Romans?
6. Which general did Caesar send into Britain next?
7. Why was he better?
8. What did Petronius do?
Directions: Based on the hint in parentheses, fill in the blanks in the following sentences with the correct form of the participle agreeing with the word in blue. Then, translate the sentence.
1. Tiberius fugere_________ ē vīllā suā apprehendēbatur a custōdibus Salviī. (cōnor, perfect active)
2. custōdēs Tiberium ___________ trāxērunt eum ad Salvium. (verberō, present active)
3. Salvius grātiās ēgīt servīs ___________. (laudō, perfect passive)
4. canis __________ Salviam monuit. (latrō, present active)
5. Rōmānī dīxērunt Boudiccam _____________ sē interfecisse. (capiō, perfect passive)
6. senātus imperātōrēs ____________ laudāvit. (morior, perfect active)
7. mīlitēs hostem ___________ petunt. (fugiō, present active)
8. canis Tiberium ___________ in piscinam momordit. (cadō, perfect passive)