Adapted from Tacitus Dē vitā Gnaeī Iūliī Agricolae
Britannī sibi inquiunt, agitantēs iniūriās suās ē Rōmānīs acceptās, "quantae cōpiae habēmus, sī nōs numerāmus? permultae! Germānī excussērunt iugum, et flūmen, nōn Ōceanus illōs dēfendunt! nōbīs causae bellī sunt patria coniugēs parentēs, sed illīs Rōmānīs avāritia et lūxuria! recēdent, ut dīvus Iulius recessit, libenter sequēntēs virtūtem māiorum suōrum. nolīte timēre ēventum unius proeliī: miserī sumus, itaque māiorem cōnstantiam habēbimus. iam deī nōbīs Britannīs favent, quī Rōmānum ducem absentem, quī exercitum ēius in aliā īnsulā dētinent. iam nōs ipsī dēlīberāmus, aliquid quod semper difficillimum est. vērum perīculōsius est Rōmānōs nōs dēprehendere cōnsilia faciēntēs quam bellum gerere audentēs.
Adjectives of the 3rd declension
Throughout your Missions, you have seen many adjectives like fēlīx and gravis and brevis that belong to the 3rd declension. They work just like other adjectives (they agree with their noun's gender, number, and case), but they always have 3rd declension forms. Notice in your Mission briefing "potestis vidēre Catōnem fēlīcem esse" or "ostendit senātōribus omnibus"? "fēlīcem" matches "Catōnem" - they're both masculine, singular, and accusative. "omnibus" matches "senātōribus"; they're both masculine, plural, and dative. They're spelled the same, but that's a coincidence! Let's take a look at some further examples to show what we mean.
What if, instead of Catō, Septimus was happy? Then you'd say "potestis vidēre Septimum fēlīcem esse." Or Numidia? "potestis vidēre Numidiam fēlīcem esse." Or poets? "potestis vidēre poetās fēlīcēs esse."
But beware, Operatives! Did you see "tempore brevī ?" in your Mission briefing? "Brevī" looks like it doesn't agree, but that's because it has a secret, Operatives! 3rd declension adjectives often use -ī instead of -e in the Ablative singular!
Operatives, remember that the underlying rule regarding all adjectives is AGREEMENT; that is to say that they match their nouns structurally (i.e. grammatically) and not in spelling or declension.
You should explore this video briefing from latintutorial.com for more information about third declension adjectives:
Adverbs of the 3rd declension
3rd declension adjectives also usually express their adverbial forms differently than other adjectives (that is to say they often use -(i/en)ter instead of -ē) Take a look!
omnēs fēlīciter posthāc vīxērunt.
Everyone lived happily ever after.
mīlitēs Rōmānī fortiter pugnant.
Roman soldiers fight bravely.
Catō vehementer cēnset.
Cato forcefully gives his opinion.
Their comparative and superlative forms, however, work just as you've been attuned to.
mīlitēs Rōmānī fortius quam Britannī pugnant.
Roman soldiers fight more bravely than British ones.
Catō vehementissime cēnset.
Cato gives his opinion very forcefully.
|aliēnus, aliēna, aliēnum||strange, foreign, not one's own||adjective|
|appāreō, appārēre, appāruī, appāritus||to appear||verb|
|cēnseō, cēnsēre, cēnsuī, cēnsus||to express an opinion, to vote on a measure||verb|
|congregō, congregāre, congregāvī, congregātus||to gather, to collect, to assemble||verb|
|cōpiae, cōpiārum - f||troops, soldiers||noun|
|discessiō, discessiōnis - f||a formal vote in the senate||noun|
|ēlēgō, ēlēgāre, ēlēgāvī||to pick out, to bequeath away, to convey away||verb|
|extrā||outside of (+acc)||preposition|
|fiō, fierī, factus sum||to become||verb|
|intersum, interesse, interfuī, interfutus||to lie between, to intervene||verb|
|loquor, loquī, locūtus sum||to talk, to say, to tell||verb|
|officium, officiī - n||an official duty, office, position||noun|
|posterus, postera, posterum (here, comparative form)||rear, back, last||adjective|
|quippe||of course, certainly||adverb|
|saliō, salīre, saluī, saltus||to leap, to jump, to bound||verb|
|strīdor, strīdōris - m||a harsh noise, shrill sound||noun|
|taceō, tacēre, tacuī, tacitus||to be silent||verb|
|tenebrae, -ārum||shadows, gloom, dark places||noun|
|tenebrōsus, -a, -um||dark, gloomy||adjective|
|tonītrus, tonītrūs - n||thunder||noun|
|trānsmūtō, trānsmūtāre, trānsmūtāvī, trānsmūtātus||to change, to shift||verb|
|ūltimus, -a, -um||farthest, most remote, extreme, last||adjective|
Operative, Mission Control thinks that the TSTT is looking for you to leverage the knowledge of the concerns of the people Tacitus calls Britannī that you're gaining from the key-texts and your research to find a way to convince King Cogidubnus to take your side. To that end, we suggest doing some very close reading of the following passage of the Agricola from the KEY-TEXT.
Furthermore, it may be beneficial for all operatives to review the reasons Rome began a third war with Carthage.
Directions: Fill in the blank with the correct Latin adverb based on the adjective in parentheses. Then translate the sentence into English.
1. custodēs _________ pugnāvērunt, sed Recentiī eōs superāvērunt. (fortis)
2. Tiberius ad fundum Sinistrī ____________ cucurrerat. (celer)
3. canis virum _________ petēbat. (ferōx)
4. Euphorbus _________ pecūniam servāvit. (prūdēns)
5. in cubiculō suō, Salvia ___________ cantat. (suavis)
6. Caesar __________ Crassō dē lapide dīxit. (brevis)
7. Hannibal trāns Alpēs _________ iter fēcit. (audāx)
8. Tertius custodem ________ vulnerāvit. (gravis)
KEY-TEXT Comprehension Questions
Directions: Answer the following questions in complete sentences based on the key text for 16.3
1. Who were the Britons talking to?
2. Why were they talking to these people?
3. What is the first question they ask?
4. What, according to the Britons, is the cause of the war?
5. What should they not fear? Why?
6. At the end, what do the Britons need to do?
7. Will this task be easy? Why or why not?
CULTURALIA Comprehension Questions
Directions: Using the CULTURALIA section of your CODEX as a guide, answer the following questions:
1. What are the years for the Third Punic War? Who was it fought between?
2. What was the end result of the war?
3. What were the treaty terms that ended the Second Punic War? How did this weaken Carthage?
4. Who was the Roman especially adamant about going to war with Carthage again? What did he finish his speeches by saying?
5. What was the misunderstaning about the treaty in 151 BCE? Who do you think was right?
6. What caused the outbreak of war between 151 and 149 BCE?
7. Who was the Roman general who beseiged Carthage? What was the result?