Listen to the audio feed from TSTT Mission Control as you read, operatives.
> Lūcae, Galliae Cisalpīnae, 56 BCE<
Gāius Iūlius Caesar, Gnaeus Pompēius Māgnus et Marcus Licinius Crassus cōnstituērunt Lūcae convenīre. voluērunt cōnsilium māgnum facere dē rēbus māgnīs Senātūs. dēsīderābant augere imperia sua. dīcēbant sē cōnsilium facere quod necesse erat auxilium ferre reī pūblicae. trēs virī imperium inter sē dīvīserant sed nunc Senātus volēbat imperium dē Caesare Pompēiōque Crassōque iterum recipere.
Crassus dīxit, "ō sociī, cōnsilium optimum invēnī. Hannibal Lapidem sēcum portāvit et ad Parthiam īit. volō ad Parthiam cum mīlitibus contendere et Lapidem quaerere."
Caesar rīsit et dīxit, "Lapisne? minimē, est nullus Lapis sed tū tamen dēbēs in Parthiam impetum facere. necesse est glōriam Rōmae addere."
Pompēius respondit, "ō Caesar, cūr fābulam dē Lapide dīmittis? fortasse possumus Lapidem invenīre..."
Caesar Pompēiō respondit, "satis, mī Māgne! ō Crasse, ī ad Parthiam. ō Pompēī, accipe fīliam meam dūcque eam in mātrimōniō. vōs autem imperium meum in Galliā tendete... atque, dēbēmus Cicerōnem pācāre."
Operatives, while verbs are often the main action in a sentence, sometimes they are capable of transforming into other roles as well. One of the most common changes for a verb is to become an adjective; otherwise known in English grammar as a participle. The first of these participles that you will encounter is the present active participle which is best translated as "verbing."
Consider the following examples:
Sextus, per atrium ambulāns , Recentiōs cōnspexit.
Sextus, walking through the atrium, caught sight of the Recentiī.
Recentiī Sextum in atriō stantem vidērunt.
The Recentiī saw Sextus standing in the atrium.
Recentiī, lapidem portantēs , trans agrum cucurrērunt.
The Recentiī, carrying the Lapis, ran across the field.
Because the participle is part adjective it also agrees in case, number and gender with the noun that it modifies. In addition, you will notice that the present active participle uses the endings from the 3rd declension.
It is important to remember that the present active participle is not the main action of the sentence. It is best to think of the participle as another way to describe a noun.
However, since the participle is part verb, it draws its forms from the verb. In the above, ambulāns is formed from ambulāre. Consider the following forms:
|ānulus, -ī; m||ring||noun|
|cōnsilium, -ī; n||plan, advice, counsel||noun|
|conveniō, convenīre, convēnī||to gather, to come together, to meet||verb|
|ferō, ferre, tulī||to carry, to bear, to bring||verb
|glōria, -ae; f||glory||noun|
|ostendō, onstendere, ostendī||to show, to expose||verb|
|pācō, pācere, pācāvī||to pacify, to make peaceful, to make quiet||verb|
|recipiō, recipere, recēpī||to receive||verb|
|tendō, tendere, tetendī||to aim, to strive for, to direct one's self to||verb|
|terminālis, -e||end, boundary||adjective|
If the probator is trying to prove that the 1st century BCE was a very violent time in Rome’s history, he’s certainly doing a great job.
In the latter part of the 1st century both Marcus Tullius Cicero and Gaius Julius Caesar came to the forefront of Roman politics. To understand what each man stood for, and how he went about achieving his goals, means that you’ll be able to further understand the delicate social and political forces in Rome.
Directions: Choose the correct present participle to replace the bolded phrase. Then, translate the new sentence.
1. servi, qui adiuvant Tiberium, laeti sunt. (adiuvantem, adiuvantes, adiuvans)
2. Tiberius odit Salvium, qui semper cachinnat. (cachinnans, cachinnantes, cachinnantem)
3. Recentii spectant omnes custodes, qui pugnant. (pugnantem, pugnantes, pugnans)
4. Septimus dat chartum puero, qui lacrimat. (lacrimans, lacrimanti, lacrimantem)
5. viri, qui potentiam cupiunt, saepe mali sunt. (cupiens, cupiente, cupientes)
Directions: Give the case and number of each noun form. Some nouns may have more than one option. If so, list all options.
CULTURALIA Comprehension Questions
Directions: Answer the following questions based on the Culturalia readings.
1. When was Marcus Tullius Cicero born? When did he die?
2. What aspect of Cicero's political career did he consider his greatest achievement?
3. What is he best known for today?
4. How did Cicero's public career end?
5. When was Gaius Julius Caesar born? When did he die?
6. When did Caesar unite with Crassus and Pompey?
7. What conquest is Caesar best known for?
8. What actions do you think brought about the downfall of Caesar?
KEY-TEXT Comprehension Questions
Directions: Using the key-text for 14.1, answer the following questions in complete Latin sentences.
1. quis constituērunt Lucae convenīre?
2. cūr illī convenērunt?
3. cūr necesse erat facere cōnsilium?
4. quid Crassus dēsīderāvit?
5. quid Caesar dīxit dē Lapide?
6. cūr Caesar dēdit suam filiam Pompeiō?
7. quō Caesar voluit īre?