Listen to the audio feed from TSTT Mission Control as you read, operatives.
frātrēs Gracchī natī sunt Cornēliae, quae fuit fīlia Scīpiōnis Āfricānī. DCXXI a.u.c., Ti. Gracchus tenuit officium Tribūnī Plēbis. hōc annō, multī mīlitēs in exercitibus fēcērunt discordiās quod Ītalia nōn satis agrōrum habuit: imperātōrēs veterānis mīlitibus agrōs dābant, sed iam nullī agrī remanēbant.
Tiberius voluit auxilium et mīlitibus et aliīs Rōmānīs ferre. cōnsilium cēpit: dātūrus erat plēbī agrōs quōs patriciī tunc habuērunt. sed senātōrēs hoc facere nōluērunt. timēbant hoc cōnsilium, nam Tiberius Gracchus voluit plēbī dōnāre plūs potestātis. senātōrēs amīcōs convocāvērunt et in forō fustibus Tiberium verberāvērunt et trīgintā sodālēs usque ad mortem.
DCXXXII a.u.c., Gāius Gracchus fuit Tribūnus Plēbis. Gāius erat vir prūdentissimus, et patriciī eum perīculōsum esse vīdērunt. retulit cōnsilium frātris et propter hoc, plēbs et patriciī, quōs omnēs dīcēbant "Populārēs", eī favēbant, sed patriciī, quōs "Optimātēs" omnēs dīcēbant, eum timēbant. propter tamen bonōs cōnsociātiōnēs Gaiī, multī lēgēs, quibus ille favēbat, acceptae sunt. tandem tamen L. Opīmius et amīcī suī Gāium Gracchum in forō occīdērunt multīs sellīs.
Operatives, in Latin special forms of verbs are used when someone is being told to do something. These verbs are known as imperatives or simply commands. Imperatives can be singular or plural depending on who is being ordered. These forms are based on the conjugation (group) to which the verb belongs. Recall Episode 7.1 for a review of how to detect conjugation.
|2nd Conjugation||sedē !||sedēte !||sedēre|
Commands can also be negative (Don't verb!) These forms are built using the verb nolō and the infinitive.
Consider the following negative imperatives:
|SINGULAR||nōlī ambulāre!||Don't walk!|
|nōlī sedēre!||Don't sit!|
|PLURAL||nōlīte trahere!||Don't drag!|
|nōlīte venīre!||Don't come!|
To operatives who feel uneasy about the imperative, spectāte (see what we did there?) at this video briefing courtesy of latintutorial.com.
|dextra, -ae; f||the right hand, right side||noun|
|exspectō, exspectāre, exspectāvī||to wait for, to expect||verb|
|hortus, -ī; m||garden||noun|
|medius, -a, -um||middle||adjective
|praetextus, -a, -um||purple bordered||adjective|
|sinistra, -ae; f||the left hand, left side||noun|
|socius, -i; m||ally, companion||noun|
|tabella, -ae; f||tablet||noun|
|tertius, -a, -um||third||adjective|
|vester, vestra, vestrum||your||noun|
Operatives, this next challenge poses an interest topic for debate. We think that we might be starting to understand what these tasks are aiming to accomplish but, at this point, continue to play along with the probator.
We’ve recalled information from the data banks regarding the Gracchī brothers and Scipio Aemilianus. Operatives should research their assigned topic thoroughly although it would be a benefit if each Operative knew about Tiberius Gracchus, Gaius Gracchus and Scipio Aemilianus. These men were among the most important figures of the 2nd and 1st century BCE and their actions help shape Rome.
Directions: Based on the hint given in brackets, select the correct imperative form from the parentheses and copy that sentence into your attunement form. Then, translate the sentence.
1. (dīc, dicite) mihi dē Lapide. [vos]
2. (stā, stāte) ad sinistram meam. [tu]
3. (parā, parāte) cubiculum meum, servī! [vos]
4. (aperī, aperite) ianuam! [tu]
5. (curre, currite), Recentii! [vos]
6. Sinistrus dixit magna voce, "Recentii, mihi (respondē, respondēte!) [vos]
7. Hamilcar, quī paene mortuus erat, dīxit filiō, "me (vindicā, vindicāte)!" [tu]
8. Tiberius, quī in hāc arbore fuit, clamavit, "(adiuvā, adiuvāte) me!" [tu]
Directions: Match the vocabulary word with its clue.
1. The number after "second."
2. What a probatōr might command you to do.
3. You would do this to a ianua or a porta.
4. Cicero gave many of these.
5. What you might consider your magister/magistra.
6. People often ask you for yours. Your Recentius even has one on his/her character sheet.
7. So called because the ancients thought "left" was a bit evil.
8. What a probatōr would give you.
9. The opposite of sinistra.
10. What a probatōr is supposed to do.
KEY-TEXT Comprehension Questions
Directions: Using the key-text for 13.2, answer the following questions in complete Latin sentences.
1. quis erat mater Gracchorum?
2. cur multi milites fecerunt discordias?
3. cur senatores timebant consilium Tiberii?
4. quid accidit Tiberio?
5. cur "Optimates" consilium Gaii timebant?
6. quid accidit Gaio?
CULTURALIA Comprehension Questions
Directions: Based on the Culturalia readings, answer the following questions.
1. When was Tiberius Gracchus born? When did he die?
2. What reforms did he try to enact? How did the Optimatēs react to him?
3. When was Gaius Gracchus born? When did he die?
4. What reforms did he try to enact? How did the Optimatēs react to him?
5. When was Scipio Aemilianus born? When did he die?
6. What two major military victories did Aemilianus achieve?