Please make your selection from the above CODEX menu options for Episode 2.1
You should be aware that this mission's CULTURALIA includes the first primary source that you have encountered. This text is from the poet Hesiod and is very important for your understanding of the Titanomachy. Please be sure to read the selection carefully to obtain maximum LPs.
Listen to the audio feed from TSTT Mission Control as you read, operatives.
Sāturnus, patrem superat, . Sāturnus amat et . Sāturnus Iūnōnem et Neptūnum et Vestam et omnēs līberōs ! Ops puerum, . Ops Iovem . Iuppiter . Iuppiter , et Sāturnus venēnum cōnsūmit. Sāturnus Iūnōnem et Neptūnum et Vestam et omnēs līberōs vomit. Iuppiter contrā Sāturnum . Neptūnus dat. Iūnō auxilium dat. Vesta auxilium dat. . in librō est . Sextus fābulam . fābula est . Iuppiter pugnat Sāturnum patrem. Iuppiter Sāturnum .
fata autem dīcunt Jovem sine mortālī homine vincere Gigantēs nōn posse. Jūppiter mortālem hominem requīrit atque Minerva Herculem vocat. Hercules est vir fortissimus et fīlius Jovis. Hercules auxilium Jovī dat et cum deīs contrā Gigantēs pugnat.
Jūppiter quoque Neptūnum Jūnōnemque Apollinemque Vulcānumque Mercuriumque Diānamque vocat. deī et deae Jovī dat. Jūppiter est laetissimus quod omnēs deī et deae auxilium dant.
deī contrā Gigantēs pugnant. Vulcānus flammeās ad Gigantēs ēmittit. Apollo quoque sagittās ēmittit sed sagittae sunt . Diāna quoque sagittās venēficās habet. Apollo Diānaque multōs Gigantēs necant. Mercurius et Minerva multōs Gigantēs necant. Neptūnus magnam facit atque multōs Gigantēs necat.
Jūppiter capit et fulmen ad Gigantēs ēmittit. Jūppiter multōs Gigantēs necat et omnēs Gigantes vincit. Jūppiter tandem est victor et nunc deī tōtum regnant. Jūppiter est laetissimus quod potentiam habet.
-ā, -ō, -e
Operatives, you may be noticing nouns with a new endings: -ā, -ō , and -e . This ending is used with a noun being used as something other than the subject or object of a verb. In this module, you will learn that nouns ending in -ō can be used with prepositions, just like nouns that end with -um. Likewise, -ā aligns with nouns that end in -a and -am. -e on the other hand, aligns with nouns that end -em. The -ā, -ō , and -e endings are endings for the ablative case. The ablative serves many purposes, but for now the Demiurge only wishes you to know that it can be used in prepositional phrases.
Operatives, you may wish to note that, as a general rule, prepositions with nouns that end in -um (and other accusative endings) indicate motion (e.g., “into the room”), whereas prepositions with ablative nouns indicate placement without motion (e.g., “in the room”).
The Demiurge also wishes to let you in on a secret about the Latin language. Its nouns are divided into five groups, called declensions. These declensions are simply groupings of nouns that behave in similar ways within sentences. So far, you have encountered nouns from the first three declensions (helpfully referred to as the first, second, and third declension).
The first declension features the -a, -am, and -ā endings you've seen on some nouns. The second features the -us, -um, and -ō endings you've seen. The third features the -is, -em, and -e endings, and also a few words that in their nominative case forms have no ending, like arbor.
For more information about the concept of declension, operatives should view this video briefing courtesy of latintutorial.com.
|homo / hominem||man||noun|
|mons / montem||mountain||noun|
[Note that this immersion is the first of many that feature much, much more information to explore than you will possibly be able to take in at this time. In particular, the Wikipedia articles linked below are for you to skim, reading perhaps the first two or three paragraphs. Of course, if you become fascinated, and decide to spend more time than you were anticipating, the result will only be greater cultural attunement, and more progress towards operational objectives!]
Operative, the Titanomachy–the battle of the Olympians and the Titans–is one of the oldest myths that came to Rome from Greece. The earliest version of the story that we have was told in the Hesiodic tradition. Your mission will involve a great deal of mythological learning, so for this immersion we wish only to stress that modern research has demonstrated that “Homer” and “Hesiod” were not writers, or even real people, but rather the names of oral traditions. The story of the Titanomachy was told in countless different ways over the thousands of years between (we think) 1500BCE and 79CE: in this immersion, you will help in telling it again.
For your convenience the TSTT HUD has provided information regarding the Roman vs Greek names for the gods.
Here is the Greek poet Hesiod’s version:
“But when first their father was vexed in his heart with Obriareus and Cottus and Gyes (The Hecatonchires), he bound them in cruel bonds, because he was jealous of their exceeding manhood and comeliness and great size: and he made them live beneath the wide-pathed earth, where they were afflicted, being set to dwell under the ground, at the end of the earth, at its great borders, in bitter anguish for a long time and with great grief at heart. But the son of Cronos (Zeus/Jupiter) and the other deathless gods whom rich-haired Rhea bare from union with Cronos (Saturn), brought them up again to the light at Earth’s advising. For she herself recounted all things to the gods fully, how that with these they would gain victory and a glorious cause to vaunt themselves. For the Titan gods and as many as sprang from Cronos had long been fighting together in stubborn war with heart-grieving toil, the lordly Titans from high Othyrs, but the gods, givers of good, whom rich-haired Rhea bare in union with Cronos, from Olympus. So they, with bitter wrath, were fighting continually with one another at that time for ten full years, and the hard strife had no close or end for either side, and the issue of the war hung evenly balanced. But when he had provided those three with all things fitting, nectar and ambrosia which the gods themselves eat, and when their proud spirit revived within them all after they had fed on nectar and delicious ambrosia, then it was that the father of men and gods spoke amongst them:
(ll. 644-653) `Hear me, bright children of Earth and Heaven, that I may say what my heart within me bids. A long while now have we, who are sprung from Cronos and the Titan gods, fought with each other every day to get victory and to prevail. But do you show your great might and unconquerable strength, and face the Titans in bitter strife; for remember our friendly kindness, and from what sufferings you are come back to the light from your cruel bondage under misty gloom through our counsels.’
(ll. 654-663) So he said. And blameless Cottus answered him again: `Divine one, you speak that which we know well: nay, even of ourselves we know that your wisdom and understanding is exceeding, and that you became a defender of the deathless ones from chill doom. And through your devising we are come back again from the murky gloom and from our merciless bonds, enjoying what we looked not for, O lord, son of Cronos (Jupiter). And so now with fixd purpose and deliberate counsel we will aid your power in dreadful strife and will fight against the Titans in hard battle.’
(ll. 664-686) So he said: and the gods, givers of good things, applauded when they heard his word, and their spirit longed for war even more than before, and they all, both male and female, stirred up hated battle that day, the Titan gods, and all that were born of Cronos together with those dread, mighty ones of overwhelming strength whom Zeus brought up to the light from Erebus beneath the earth. An hundred arms sprang from the shoulders of all alike, and each had fifty heads growing upon his shoulders upon stout limbs. These, then, stood against the Titans in grim strife, holding huge rocks in their strong hands. And on the other part the Titans eagerly strengthened their ranks, and both sides at one time showed the work of their hands and their might. The boundless sea rang terribly around, and the earth crashed loudly: wide Heaven was shaken and groaned, and high Olympus reeled from its foundation under the charge of the undying gods, and a heavy quaking reached dim Tartarus and the deep sound of their feet in the fearful onset and of their hard missiles. So, then, they launched their grievous shafts upon one another, and the cry of both armies as they shouted reached to starry heaven; and they met together with a great battle-cry.
(ll. 687-712) Then Zeus no longer held back his might; but straight his heart was filled with fury and he showed forth all his strength. From Heaven and from Olympus he came forthwith, hurling his lightning: the bold flew thick and fast from his strong hand together with thunder and lightning, whirling an awesome flame. The life-giving earth crashed around in burning, and the vast wood crackled loud with fire all about. All the land seethed, and Ocean’s streams and the unfruitful sea. The hot vapour lapped round the earthborn Titans: flame unspeakable rose to the bright upper air: the flashing glare of the thunder- stone and lightning blinded their eyes for all that there were strong. Astounding heat seized Chaos: and to see with eyes and to hear the sound with ears it seemed even as if Earth and wide Heaven above came together; for such a mighty crash would have arisen if Earth were being hurled to ruin, and Heaven from on high were hurling her down; so great a crash was there while the gods were meeting together in strife. Also the winds brought rumbling earthquake and dust storm, thunder and lightning and the lurid thunderbolt, which are the shafts of great Zeus, and carried the clangour and the warcry into the midst of the two hosts. An horrible uproar of terrible strife arose: mighty deeds were shown and the battle inclined. But until then, they kept at one another and fought continually in cruel war.
(ll. 713-735) And amongst the foremost Cottus and Briareos and Gyes insatiate for war raised fierce fighting: three hundred rocks, one upon another, they launched from their strong hands and overshadowed the Titans with their missiles, and buried them beneath the wide-pathed earth, and bound them in bitter chains when they had conquered them by their strength for all their great spirit, as far beneath the earth to Tartarus. For a brazen anvil falling down from heaven nine nights and days would reach the earth upon the tenth: and again, a brazen anvil falling from earth nine nights and days would reach Tartarus upon the tenth. Round it runs a fence of bronze, and night spreads in triple line all about it like a neck-circlet, while above grow the roots of the earth and unfruitful sea. There by the counsel of Zeus who drives the clouds the Titan gods are hidden under misty gloom, in a dank place where are the ends of the huge earth. And they may not go out; for Poseidon fixed gates of bronze upon it, and a wall runs all round it on every side. There Gyes and Cottus and great-souled Obriareus live, trusty warders of Zeus who holds the aegis.”
Hesiod. The Homeric Hymns and Homerica with an English Translation by Hugh G. Evelyn-White. Theogony. Cambridge, MA.,Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann Ltd. 1914. Licensed under CC-BY-SA.
Directions: In your attunement form, label each of the following nouns with the correct declension (group) to which it belongs. See the bottom of this episode's GRAMMATICA for assistance.
Directions: Copy and paste each sentence into your attunement form, completing it with the correct word in parentheses. Then translate the sentence
1. Iuppiter (in saxō, saxum) stat.
2. Sextus est (nitidus, nitidum, in nitidō)
3. Neptūnus (Ōceanus, Ōceanum, in Ōceanō) pulsat.
4. Recentia (dea, deam, in deā) optimam legit.
Directions: In your attunement form, label each god or goddess as an Olympian or a Titan.
Directions: Copy and paste each sentence into your attunement form, completing it with the correct word in parentheses. Then translate the sentence into English.
1. Homō in scopulō (stat, intrat).
2. Iuppiter (est, habet) maximus.
3. Iuppiter Lapidem (est, habet).
4. Iuppiter Lapidem māgnum (rīdet, capit).
5. Sextus iānuam (ambulat, aperit).
2.1 CULTURALIA Comprehension Questions
Directions: Using the CULTURALIA section of your CODEX as a guide, answer the following questions:
1) Where did the Titanomachy take place? How long did it last?
2) What was the name of the Titans' home base?
3) Who wrote the most famous account of the Titanomachy? When was he thought to have lived?
4) Why did Zeus lead the other Olympians against Cronus?
5) Who did Zeus free to fight alongside the Olympians?
6) Which Titans took sides against their brethren?
7) Name four other Titans and give their aspect (what they were in charge of). Do these aspects align with any of the Olympians? If so, which ones?
8) Name the 12 Olympian gods, both Roman and Greek names.