Adapted from Tacitus Dē vitā Gnaeī Iūliī Agricolae
Sequēns hiems salūberrimīs cōnsiliīs absumpta est. Namque ut hominēs dispersī ac rudēs eōque in bella facilēs quiētī et ōtiō per voluptātēs adsuēscērent, Agricola illīs persuadēbat privatim, adiuvābat publicē, ut templa fora domōs extruerent, laudandō promptōs, castigandō segnēs: ita honōris aemulātiō prō necessitāte erat. Iam vērō principum fīliōs līberālibus artibus erudiēbat, et ingenia Britannōrum studiīs Gallōrum anteferēbat, ut quī modo linguam Rōmānam abnuēbant, ēloquentiam concupīscerent. Inde etiam habitūs nostrī honor fit et frequēns toga; paulātimque discēdēbant ad dēlēnīmenta vitiōrum, porticūs et balneās et conviviōrum ēlegantiam. Idque apud imperītōs hūmānitās vōcābātur, cum pars servitūtis esset.
Operatives, over the last few episodes you have attuned yourself to the third person endings for the imperfect and pluperfect subjunctive. Just like their indicative counterparts, subjunctive verbs also have similar endings for their 1st person and 2nd person endings. Thankfully, these are the familiar personal endings as well. Consider the following:
ambulō, ambulāre, ambulāvī, ambulātus - to walk
|Imperfect Subjunctive||Pluperfect Subjunctive|
|1st Person singular (ego)||ambulārem||ambulāvissem|
|2nd Person singular (tū)||ambulārēs||ambulāvissēs|
|3rd Person singular||ambulāret||ambulāvisset|
|1st Person plural (nōs)||ambulārēmus||ambulāvissē mus|
|2nd Person plural (vōs)||ambulārētis||ambulāvissētis|
|3rd Person plural||ambulārent||ambulāvissent|
Notice the 1st person endings are the familiar -m and -mus while the 2nd person endings are -s and -tis respectively. Operatives should realize that these forms are easily recognizable and should attune themselves accordingly.
|addūcō, addūcere, addūxī, adductus||to bring to||verb|
|auscultō, auscultāre, auscultāvī, auscultātus||hear, obey||verb|
|cadō, cadere, cecidī, casus||to fall, fall down||verb|
|celebrō, celebrāre, celebrāvī, celebrātus||to celebrate||verb|
|crassus, crassa, crassum||solid, thick, fat||adjective|
|dēvertō, dēvertere, dēvertī, -||to turn away||verb|
|geniālis, geniāle||of generation, birth; pleasant||adjective|
|impluvium, impluviī||a small court open to the sky (forming the middle wall of a Roman house, and surrounded by covered galleries)||noun|
|inest||he is in||verb|
|Iugurtha||Jugurtha, the nephew and successor of Micipsa, king of Numidia, conquered by Marius in the war with the Romans||noun|
|laqueār, laqueāris||a panelled ceiling, fretted roof||noun|
|nōlō, nōlle, nōluī, -||to not want||verb|
|opertus, operta, opertum||hidden, concealed||adjective|
|palma, palmae||the palm, hand||noun|
|patricius, patricia, patricium||noble, nobleman||adjective|
|pellicula, pelliculae||a little skin, a small hide (here, "in the movies")||noun|
|pēs, pedis||a foot||noun|
|plangor, plangōris||a striking||noun|
|rēgālis, rēgāle||kingly, royal||adjective|
|sacrificium, sacrificiī||a sacrifice||noun|
|sollicitō, sollicitāre, sollicitāvī, sollicitātus||to disturb, stir||verb|
|stō, stāre, stetī, status||to stand||verb|
|strīdō, strīdere||to whistle, make a shrill noise||verb|
|sufferō, sufferre, sustulī, sublātus||to undergo, endure||verb|
|tegumen, teguminis||a covering, cover||noun|
|venter, ventris||belly, womb||noun|
|volvō, volvere, volvī, volūtus||to roll, turn round||verb|
CULTURALIA Comprehension Questions
Directions: Using the CULTURALIA section of your CODEX as a guide, answer the following questions:
1. How did Jugurtha rise to power in Numidia?
2. What happened to Jugurtha in the first conflict? What problems with Rome at the time do you think this exposed?
3. Marius was not the first commander in the war. How did he obtain this position? Why is this significant?
4. According to the historian Plutarch, who played a crucial role in capturing Jugurtha? Who was actually rewarded for the deed?
dē Gāiō Mariō
5. Name three notable events in the early life and career of Gaius Marius.
6. Why is Marius' social class noteworthy?
7. What changes did Marius make to the Roman army?
8. What is noteworthy about his consulships from 104 - 100 BCE? What were the implications for Rome?
9. What brought about the civil war with Sulla? What were the consequences for Rome?