Adapted from Tacitus Dē vitā Gnaeī Iūliī Agricolae
Agricola, cum haec gesta in prīmō annō , fāmam pācis futūrae augēbat. vel intolerantiā priōrēs Agricolae fēcerant pacem haud minus timendam quam bellum, sed ubī advēnit, saepe in mīlitibus erat Agricola ipse. laudābat disiectōsque . loca castrīs ipse quaerēbat, et ac silvās ipse . nec quiēs interim erat hostibus, sed petēbat cīvitātēs illōrum subitīs excursibus; atque ubī satis terruerat, rursus invītāmenta pācis ostendēbat. quibus rēbus multae cīvitātēs, quae līberae fuerant in illum diem, obsidēs dābant iramque ponēbant et, circumdātae praesidiīs castellīsque tantā rātiōne curāque ut nulla nova pars Britanniae antea ita fuisset.
Operatives, in the past, you have seen sentences like this,
quis custodīvit ipsōs custodēs?
Who watched the watchers?
ubī est Malus?
Where is the bad guy?
These are questions, specifically direct questions.
You have now also encountered sentences like this,
nēmō sciēbat quis ipsōs custodēs custodīvisset.
No one was knowing who had watched the watchers.
Recentiī cōgnōverant ubi Malus latēret.
The Recentii found out where the bad guy was hiding.
Each of these sentences asks a question, but not directly - the question is only referred to- thus, they are called indirect questions. Indirect questions are a kind of subordinate subjunctive verb clause and are very easy to recognize. They are triggered by a question word such as quis, ubi, cur, num, etc... and the verb in the clause is always in the subjunctive. The main verb of the sentence will also often be one of asking, doubting, knowing, or the like. Here are some examples of direct questions juxtaposed with their indirect equivalents,
|Direct Question||Indirect Question|
|quid est||rogāvit quid esset.|
|What is it?||He asked what it was.|
|ubi fuī?||nēscīvit ubi fuissem.|
|Where was I?||He did not know where I had been.|
|agēns, agentis||effective, powerful||adjective|
|aspiciō, aspicere, aspēxī, aspectus||to look at||verb|
|castrum, castrī||a military camp||noun|
|compescō, compescere, compescuī, -||to confine, suppress, restrain||verb|
|factum, factī||a deed||noun|
|genus, generis||a race, family, origin||noun|
|īnfēlīx, īnfēlīcis||unhappy, unfortunate||adjective|
|īnsāniō, īnsānīre, insanīvī, insanītus||to be senseless, without reason||verb|
|mātūtīnus, mātūtīna, mātūtīnum||of the morning||adjective|
|modus, modī||a measure, quantity||noun|
|negōtium, negōtiī - n||business||noun|
|ōlim||at that time||adverb|
|pius, pia, pium||dutiful||adjective|
|prīmitīvus, prīmitīva, prīmitīvum||the first or earliest of its kind, primitive||adjective|
|prōficiō, prōficere, prōfēcī, prōfectus||to make progress, have success||verb|
|quantō||by how much||adverb|
|quōmodo||in what way?||adverb|
|sinō, sinere, sīvī, situs||to let, let down, set||verb|
|subeō, subīre, subiī, subitus||to go under, advance, approach||verb|
|tribūnus, tribūnī||a tribune||noun|
|umquam||at any time, ever||adverb|
|valdē||strongly, very much||adverb|
|vāllō, vāllāre, vāllāvī, vāllātus||to fortify||verb|
|vērum, vērī||the truth, honor||noun|
|vītō, vītāre, vītāvī, vītātus||to avoid, evade||verb|
Directions: Turn each direct question into an indirect question and then translate the new sentence. The first one has been done for you as an example.
1. "quis es?" rogāvit Agricola.
Indirect Question: Agricola rogāvit quis essēs. Agricola asked who you were.
2. "quomodō advēneramus hīc?" rogāvit Prīscus.
3. "quid volpēs dīxit? nēsciō," mussāvit mīlēs.
4. "cur ille vir edit crustulum?" voluimus cōgnōscere.
5. "quot hostēs mānsērunt in castrō?" rogāvit imperator.
Directions: Using the Culturalia links, answer the following questions.
1. What percentage of the legion consisted of non-citizens?
2. Who led troops and who did they have to report to?
3. What was the auxillia and what was their purpose?
4. What was the purpose of a castra?
5. What is the significance of the praetorium?
6. What is a main road and what was it used for?
7. Where did the camp get its main source of water?