Listen to the audio feed from TSTT Mission Control as you read, operatives.
Hannibal in Ītaliam
Hannibal, dux Carthāginis, cōnsilium cēpit patrem suum et oppūgnāre Rōmam. cōnstituit montēs Alpēs . erat cōnsilium īnsānum, sed Hannibal fuit vir . exercituī suō et omnibus elephantīs, elephantō suō, Syrō. congregāvit mīlitēs suōs et elephantōs et incēpērunt trānsīre Alpēs.
hiems fuit ācerrima. multī mīlitēs et elephantī , sed Hannibal iter. tandem trānsiit in Ītaliam.
Rōmānī territī sunt. Hannibal oppida et nunc contendēbat Rōmam! tunc, dux clārissimus cōnsilium cēpit: necesse erat oppūgnāre Carthāginem!
Operatives, most nouns in Latin follow the pattern of a 1st, 2nd, or 3rd declension. However, there are a two less commonly used declensions. These are aptly named the 4th and 5th declensions .
Consider the following 4th declension noun:
portus, portūs - f - port/harbor
|accusative (direct object)||portum||portūs|
|ablative (by, with, in, etc)||portū||portibus|
Operatives should note that many of these endings are the same as other declensions. You should pay careful attention to the genitive (singular and plural), ablative singular, and the nominative and accusative plural.
Building on the explanation of dictionary entries in Episode 11.2, pay careful attention to portus, portūs - f - port/harbor.
Notice the genitive form is "ūs". This becomes the marker of a 4th declension noun.
For more detail on the fourth declension, operatives are encouraged to explore this video briefing from latintutorial.com:
|alter, altera, alterum||the other, the one...the other||adjective|
|animus, -ī; m||mind, spirit, soul||noun|
|elephantus, -ī; m||elephant||noun|
|equus, -ī; m||horse||noun|
|exsiliō, exsilīre, exsiluī||to leap down, leap from||verb|
|fugiō, fugere, fūgī||to flee||verb|
|proelium, -ī; n||battle||noun|
|sella, -ae; f||chair||noun|
Operatives, it is clear that you are standing on the field of battle. Specifically, this seems to be the Battle of Cannae in 218 BCE.
The Roman army was under the command of both consuls: Gaius Terentius Varro and Lucius Aemilius Paullus. Despite the fact that the Romans had superior numbers, Hannibal pulled off one of the greatest military victories in the history of the world, sending shockwaves through the very heart of Rome. Operatives would be wise to also consult this interactive timeline of Hannibal's life.
Alternatively Operatives with a bit more time on their hands may wish to view a great documentary, especially around the 48 minute mark.
"Hannibal: Victory at Cannae." 2011. The History Channel website. Apr 21 2011, 10:12 http://www.history.com/videos/the-true-story-of-hannibal-victory-at-canna
Directions: The bolded words in the following short sentences are in the singular. Write out the whole sentence with the bolded words changed to the plural. (Remember to make any other necessary changes as well!) Then, translate the new sentence.
1. stultus imperator cōnsilium cēpit.
2. murī cecidērunt magnō fragore.
3. parvum cōnsilium bonum est.
4. militēs virī magnā virtute erant.
5. hiems fuit acerrima.
6. senatorēs ducī clarissimō dixērunt, "necesse est tibi aliquid agere!"
7. Hannibal confisus est elephantō suō.
8. Recentiī legērant magnum volumen.
Directions: Match the vocabulary words with the clues.
legō porta exsiliō agō elephantus animus
imperātor locus evanescō superbus tergum paene
1. If you put on an invisibility cloak, you will do this.
2. You might have one of these in the fence around your yard.
3. The English word "act" comes from this.
4. When in the SP headquarters, you will need to remember to watch your _____ at all times.
5. The English word "local" comes from this.
6. If you have a calm one of these, it is said you do better on exams..and life in general. Remember, Don't Panic.
7. Like the Romans, I, too, would be terrified to see one of these charging at me.
8. Octavian was a great one of these.
9. The last King of Rome has this cognōmen.
10. To go skydiving, you must do this from an airplane.
12. You should do this to a book.
CULTURALIA Comprehension Questions
Directions: Directions: Using the CULTURALIA section of your CODEX as a guide, answer the following questions:
1. What year was the Battle of Cannae?
2. Why was the Battle of Cannae so significant?
3. What were four other positions that Varro held?
4. Who was Varro against in Eturia?
5. What years was Aemilius Paulus consul?
6. Which Roman commander died at Cannae?
7. How did Hannibal trap the Romans at Cannae?
8. Why did Hannibal refuse to bring war to Rome itself?
KEY-TEXT Comprehension Questions
Directions: Answer the following comprehension questions based on the KEY-TEXT in complete Latin sentences.
1. quid Hannibal dēsīderat?
2. quid Hannibal constituit?
3. qualis vir erat Hannibal?
4. quibus Hannibal cōnfīsus est?
5. quid congregāvit Hannibal?
6. erat Hiems facile?
7. cur Rōmānī territī sunt?
8. quem cōnsilium dūx Rōmānus cēpit?