Listen to the audio feed from TSTT Mission Control as you read, operatives.
annus quattuor imperātōrum
postquam Nerō sē necāvit, Galba imperium capiēbat. Galba timidus multōs senātōrēs necāvit. Galba nōn erat bonus imperātor. mox Othō Galbam petīvit et mīlitēs Galbam in Forō necāvērunt. senātōrēs Othōnem salūtāvērunt sed alius imperātor, Vitellius, Othōnem petīvit. Vitellius Othōnem vīcit et Othō sē necāvit. ille modo trēs mēnsēs rēgnāvit. senātōrēs Vitellium salūtāvērunt et Vitellius Rōmam rēgēbat. Vespasiānus autem imperium cupiēbat et mox Vitellium petīvit. Vespasiānus Vitellium vīcit et statim senātōrēs Vespasiānum salūtāvērunt. in illō annō quattuor imperātōrēs Rōmam rēgēbant.
decem annōs Vespasiānus Rōmam regēbat. antequam periit, Vespasiānus Flāviānum amphitheātrum aedificābat. amphitheātrum erat et nōtissimum et ingēntissimum. fīlius Vespasiānī, Titus, amphitheātrum cōnfēcit.
postquam Promētheus īgnem hūmānīs dedit, Iuppiter erat īrātissimus quod Promētheus contra eum dolum putābat. Iuppiter ergo cōnsilium fēcit; ad fīlium, Volcānum, ambulāvit et dīxit, “Volcāne, mī filī, necesse est tibi creāre fēminam bellam ē terrā. necesse est omnibus deīs dāre dona fēminae bellae.”
Volcānus fēminam ē terrā creāvit et omnēs deī deaeque dona fēminae dedērunt. Iuppiter nomen “Pandora” fēminae dedit. nunc Iuppiter erat laetus quod quoque arcam plēnam omnium malōrum fēminae dedit.
Iuppiter Pandorae dicēbat, “nolī aperīre arcam.” Iuppiter saepe ridēbat.
unō die, Iuppiter fratrem Promētheī, Epimētheum, visitābat. Iuppiter dīxit, “ego habeō fēminam bellam; tū dēsiderās habēre fēminam bellam?”
Epimētheus respondit, “ita vero! ego dēsiderō fēminam.” Iuppiter ridēbat et Pandoram vocāvit. Pandora arcam in manū sinistrā tenēbat et tunc ad Epimētheum ambulāvit. Epimētheus erat laetus sed Promētheus nunc erat anxius. Promētheus monēre fratrem temptāvit sed frustrā erat. Epimētheus fēminam amābat. Iuppiter iterum ridēbat.
Epimētheus saepe dē arcā rogābat. Pandora nihil dē arcā dicēbat. Epimētheus saepe rogābat, “quid est in arcā? dīc mihi, quid est in arcā? aperī arcam!” Pandora erat cūriōsa et dēsiderābat aperīre arcam. Pandora arcam aperuit et subitō multa mala ex arcā volābant. Pandora erat territa et statim arcam clausit. spēs sola in arcā remanēbat.
Promētheus nunc erat tristis quod hominēs mala vidēbant. fortasse Promētheus spem ex arcā remōvit et dedit spem hominibus. Promētheus quoque alia dona hominibus dedit; hūmānī nunc in casīs habitābant, agrōs colēbant, dē medicīnā intellegēbant, nāvēs navigābant, instrumenta faciēbant.
Iuppiter autem erat iratus iterum.
Word Count: 242
Reading Comprehension Questions
Reading Comprehension Questions
1. What happens as a result of Jupiter’s anger towards Prometheus? Whom does Jupiter summon and what are his orders?
2. In addition to the the gifts the gods gave her, what else did Pandora have? What was inside of that object?
3, What were Jupiter’s orders to Pandora? What effect do you think this had? Have you had a similar reaction when other people have given you a similar command?
4. To whom did Jupiter give Pandora? What was this person’s relationship to Prometheus?
5. What did Epimetheus often ask Pandora to do? What happened when she did what Epimetheus asked?
6. What did Prometheus give to humans because he felt bad about what happened?
Operatives, in previous immersions you’ve only encountered verbs that have one person or thing as the subject. These verbs are said to be singular. However, occasionally there is the need to have more than one person or thing be the subject of a sentence and the verb must change in order to reflect this. These verbs are said to be plural.
You will recall that the singular third person verb ended in -t. Fortunately, the plural form of the 3rd person is another straightforward ending, -nt. The different groups of verbs you have encountered (examples: 1) ambulat, 2) ridet, 3) contendit) are each distinguished by the vowels they put before their endings. Notice below that in the 3rd person plural, they are still distinguished that way, though the third group is marked now by -u- rather than -i-.
Be on the lookout for new verbs that you encounter with the -nt ending, these verbs are all plural and thus have more than one subject.
For greater attunement, operatives should view this video briefing courtesy of latintutorial.com:
-ae, -ī, -ēs
With a change from singular to plural in the verb forms comes a similar change to the nouns as well, specifically the nominative case. It is impossible to have a singular subject with a plural verb and so we have a new set of endings that correspond to plural nominative nouns.
puella ridet. | puellae rident.
The girl laughs. | The girls laugh.
servus ambulat. | servī ambulant.
The slave walks. | The slaves walk.
mercātōr contendit. | mercātōrēs contendunt.
The merchant hurries. | The merchants hurry.
As you may have noticed, the nominative singular -a ending of the first declension changed to -ae in the plural.
The nominative singular -us ending of the second declension changed to -ī in the plural.
And lastly, the nominative plural ending of the third declension became -ēs.
One more piece of intel: when you're making the plural of est (is) into plural (are), things get weird: the word you want is sunt (they are).
|dē||about, from, away from (+abl)||preposition|
|mittēbat / mittit||she/he was sending / sends (present)||verb|
|spectat||she/he watches, looks at||verb|
Operative, in 79CE a change of regime had just taken place between two identically named emperors, Titus Flavius Vespasianus (Vespasian) and Titus Flavius Vespasianus (Titus).
In addition, you should be made aware that Augustus was one of the most important men in the history of the world, especially according to him. Operatives would be wise to watch this short video briefing courtesy of the American Institute for Roman Culture:
In addition, you may wish to view this TED-Ed video analyzing the ways in which Augustus rose and held on to power.
Directions: Write the plural of each of the following nouns. Write the definition of the word.
Directions: The following short sentences are in the singular. Change the subject and the verb into the correct plural forms and then translate the sentences into English.
1. servus labōrat.
2. puella rīdet.
3. amīcus currit.
4. malus dormit.
5. mercātor in forō est.
Directions: Copy and paste each sentence into your attunement form, completing it with the correct word in parentheses. Then translate the sentence into English.
1. servus epistulam in (cērā, cēram, cērae) scrībēbat.
2. mittēbat epistulam ad patruum (tuus, tuō, tuum).
3. Titus et Horātiāna in (tablīnō, tablīnum) sunt.
4. Salvius (mittis, mittō, mittēbat) epistulam ad Caecilium.
5. Caecilius in tablinō epistulam (dictās, dictō, dictābat)
6. amīcus (meum, mea, meus) iacēbat in lectō.
7. (Caecilius, Caecilō, Caecilium) vōs cōnspicit.
8. Augustus (dīva, dīvus, dīvum) (māgnam, māgna, māgnum) fēcit!
Directions: Answer the following questions in complete Latin sentences.
1. scrībisnē tū epistulam in cēram nunc?
2. regēbatnē Titus Rōmam?
3. in aliō tempore, regēbatnē senātus Rōmam?
4. in fābulā, mittēbatnē Caecilius epistulam ad patruum?
CULTURALIA Comprehension Questions
Directions: Using the CULTURALIA section of your CODEX as a guide, answer the following questions:
dē Flāviānīs1. What was the relationship between Vespasian and Titus?
2. Briefly describe the events that led to Vespasian becoming emperor.
3. Name two provinces (modern countries) in which Vespasian served a military role.
4. What famous building is Vespasian responsible for constructing?
5. How did Titus become emperor?
6. For what military accomplishment is he best known? What structure commemorates this?
7. When and how did he die? Who succeeded him as emperor?
1. How does Octavian become the son of Caesar?
2. How does Octavian initially gain power?
3. With whom does he co-rule as a triumvirate?
4. Whom does Octavian defeat to obtain total control of Rome?
5. When does Octavian take the name Augustus?
6. When does Augustus die?
7. For how long did Augustus rule?
KEY-TEXT Comprehension Questions
Directions: Refer back to the KEY-TEXT to answer the following questions in English.
1. Who killed Nero? Who took over after Nero?
2. For how long did Otho rule ? Who killed him?
3. How many emperors ruled that year?
4. For how long did Vespasian rule? What did he do before he died?
5. Who was the son of Vespasian? What did he do?