Tacitus, Annales 15.48
deinde Silius Nerva et Atticus Vestinus erant consulēs. erat annus coniurationis. in hōc annō, senātōrēs, equēs, mīlitēs, et etiam fēminae voluērunt nēcāre imperatorem Nērōnem quod odērunt Nērōnem. favent C. Pīsōnī et voluērunt facere eum imperatorem.
Pīsō natus est ab antīquā familiā Calpurniā. complexus est notissimās familiās ob nobilitatem paternam et populī fāvērunt Pīsōnī ob virtutem aut aliquid simile virtutī.
Pīsō dicēbat eloquenter prō civibus, dābat pecuniam ad amīcōs in periculō, et quoque ignotīs hominibus erat semper iucundus. Pīsō erat quoque altus et pulcher.
sed Pīsō nōn habuit gravitātem mōrum et moderātionem voluptatum. indulgēbat sē in omnia. multī hominēs cōmprobāvērunt Pīsōnem quod voluērunt summum imperium nōn sē restrictum esse.
deinde Silius Nerva et Atticus Vestinus ineunt consulatum, coniuratione coeptā simul et auctā, in quam ceratim senātōrēs, equēs, mīlēs, et etiam fēminae dederant nomina cum odiō Nērōnis et tum favore in C. Pīsōnem.
is, ortus genere Calpurniō ac, paternā nobilitate, complexus multās insignēsque familiās, erat apud vulgum clarō rumore aut speciēs similēs virtutibus.
namque exercēbat facundiam tuendis civibus, exercebat largitionem adversum amīcōs, et quoque ignotīs hominibus comī sermone et congressū; etiam aderant fortuita, corpus procerum, decora faciēs;
sed gravitās morum aut persimonia vuloptatum erant procul: indulgēbat levitātī ac magnificientiae et aliquandō luxū. idque probābatur pluribus hominibus, quī, in tantā dulcedine vitiōrum, volunt summum imperium nōn restrictum nec praecerverum.
ineunt deinde consulatum Silius Nerva et Atticus Vestinus, coepta simul et aucta coniuratione, in quam certatim nomina dederant senatores eques miles, feminae etiam, cum odio Neronis, tum favore in C. Pisonem. is Calpurnio genere ortus ac multas insignesque familias paterna nobilitate complexus, claro apud vulgum rumore erat per virtutem aut species virtutibus similes. namque facundiam tuendis civibus exercebat, largitionem adversum amicos, et ignotis quoque comi sermone et congressu; aderant etiam fortuita, corpus procerum, decora facies; sed procul gravitas morum aut vuloptatum persimonia: levitati ac magnificentiae et aliquando luxu indulgebat. idque pluribus probabatur, qui in tanta vitiorum dulcedine summum imperium non restrictum nec praeseverum volunt.
Operatives, take a look at the following examples:
sī Recentiī cucurrerint , eōs comprehedēmus.
If the Recentii will have run, then we will capture them,
Or, in more refined English:
If the Recentii run, we will capture them.
sī dīligenter laborāverō , multum pecūniae adipiscar.
If I work hard, I will gain much money.
sī ad forum īerit , togās emet.
If he goes to the forum, he will buy togas.
The verbs in the first clauses of each sentence are future perfect active indicative. The future perfect tense indicates an action which takes place in the future before another action in the future. For example, in the last sentence, going to the forum takes place in the future, but before buying togas. The future perfect in Latin is used most commonly in conditional statements, which we will cover later.
Look at the formula for the future perfect active indicative:
perfect stem + future forms of "to be" except in the 3rd person plural where erint, rather than erunt is used.
Here is an example:
|1st person||amāverō||I will have loved||amāverimus||We will have loved|
|2nd person||amāveris|| You will have loved
||amāveritis|| You all will have loved
|3rd person||amāverit|| He/She will have loved
||amāverint|| They will have loved
A literal translation of the future perfect like "you will have loved," is very uncommon in English. It is far more common for English to use the present tense "you love," as in the examples in the sentences.
Also Operatives, it is important to note that there is no irregularity with the future perfect active indicative. There are no bizarre rules or exceptions. Conjugating this tense, like the perfect and the pluperfect, should be easy because there is no variation.
|angulus, angulī - m||angle, corner||noun|
|bucca, buccae - f||cheek||noun|
|coniūrātus, coniūrātī - m||conspirator||noun|
|doleō, dolēre, doluī, dolitus||to feel pain, grieve, suffer||verb|
|frangō, frangere, frēgī, frāctus||to break, to shatter, to crush||verb|
|frōns, frontis||forehead, brow||noun|
|inūtilis, inūtile||useless, unserviceable, unprofitable||adjective|
|occāsiō, occāsiōnis - f||opportunity, occasion||noun|
|praeter||except for, besides||adverb|
|prōspiciō, prōspicere, prōspēxī, prōspectus||to look forward, to look out, to see in advance, to be on watch for||verb|
|quālis, quāle||of such a kind, such as||adjective|
|quassō, quassāre, quassāvī, quassātus||to shake, toss||verb|
|scaena, scaenae - f||stage, scene, public display||noun|
|terminus, terminī||boundary, limit||noun|
|tyrannus, tyrannī - m||monarch, king, ruler, tyrant||noun|
|ūllus, ūlla, ūllum||any, some||adjective|
|vīs, vīs - f||strength, force, power||noun|
The good news is that Mission Control has confirmed your time and location. The bad news is that it is indeed the Pisonian Conspiracy. It would be advisable to read up on some of the major players involved; Gaius Calpurnius Piso, Seneca the Younger, Lucan, and the woman that betrayed the whole operation, Epicharis. Although, from our technical readouts, it appears that in this version it was Salvia who made the whole thing unravel. Curious indeed but perhaps you should play along with Seneca's question about stoicism.
CULTURALIA Comprehension Questions
Directions: Using the CULTURALIA section of your CODEX as a guide, answer the following questions:
1. When did Lucan live and what was his profession?
2. With whom was he good friends with? How did this help his career?
3. What controversial things did Lucan do towards the end of his life? How did he try to escape his fate?
4. What is the subject matter of Lucan's most famous surviving work?
1. What is Seneca most well known for throughout his life?
2. How did his early education influence him later on in life?
3. After being recalled from exile, what role did Seneca have in Rome?
4. What were some of the claims about Seneca that the historian Cassius Dio made?
5. What happens to Seneca at the end of his life?
1. Briefly summarize the core tennents of stoic philosophy.
2. Why do you think that stocisim, especially its teachings on social philosophy, were especially popular during the Empire?
3. Among the quotations listed in the article, which one do you think resonantes most with your Recentius? Why?
4. Which one do you think resonates most with yourself? Why?