Horace, Odes 1.1
palmaque nōbilis 5
ēvehit ad deōs;
, sī horreō
quicquid de Libycis āreis. 10
Operatives, you have seen in the past verbs in the passive voice. Remember that the passive voice indicates that the subject of the verb is receiving rather than doing the action of the verb. You have also seen the passive voice in both the present and the imperfect tense. Look at the following examples:
Recentiī ā Marcō agitantur.
The Recentii are being chased by Marcus.
Recentiī ā Marcō agitābantur.
The Recentii were being chased by Marcus.
Recentiī ā Marcō agitatī sunt.
The Recentiī have been chased by Marcus
The verbs in the first two sentences should look familiar. They are in the present and imperfect passives respectively. The verb in the third sentence is a little different. Instead of being just one word like agitantur, it is a combination of two words, agitatī, and sunt. All verbs in the perfect passive system, i.e, the perfect, pluperfect and future perfect tenses, are created in this way. Specifically though, perfect passive indicatives are formed by using the perfect passive participle and then adding a form of the verb "to be" in the present active indicative. Here is the formula for forming verbs in the perfect passive indicative:
Formula: perfect passive participle + present indicative form of the verb "to be" (sum)
Here is a how a verb conjugates in the perfect passive indicative:
amō, amāre, amāvī, amātus
|1st person||amātus sum||I have been loved||amātī sumus||we have been loved|
|2nd person||amātus es||you have been loved||amātī estis||you (all) have been loved|
|3rd person||amātus est||he/she has been loved||amātī sunt||they have been loved|
Notice that the participle changes forms from the singular to the plural. Because participles act like adjectives, they must agree in number gender and case with the nouns they modify. In this case, the noun will always be nominative because it is the subject of the verb, but the ending will change based on the number and the gender of the subject. Look at the following examples:
Puer ā puellā amātus est.
The boy has been loved by the girl.
Puella ā puerō amāta est.
The girl has been loved by the boy.
Notice that in the first sentence the participle ends in -us, indicating that it is masculine and singular. This is normal because the subject of the verb, and thus the noun which the participle modifies is both singular and masculine. In the second sentence the participle ends in -a, indicating that the noun the participle modifies is feminine and singular. This is also completely normal because the subject of the verb is puella, a feminine and singular noun.
That seems particularly important given that it looks like you'll be at the House of Maecenas in the second part of this episode. Brushing up on him, and who his known associates would have been, would be an excellent idea.