Adapted from Tacitus Dē vitā Gnaeī Iūliī Agricolae
Ita cum pācem Britannī et īnsulam dedissent omnēs Agricōlam ac magnum esse. illum prōvinciam labor et perīculum delectāverant, cum aliī ducēs Rōmānī et māiora officia dēsīderāverant. nec Agricōlam iuvat superbum esse dē prospēritāte rērum, nec vocābat expedītiōnem aut vīctōriam vīctōs continuisse; nē litterīs quidem gestōrum nuntium mīsit, sed ipsā fāmae fāmam auxit, et omnēs aestimābant quanta facta futūra eius sint cum taceret tam magna quae iam .
Agricōla erat prūdēns et sciēns animōs prōvinciae, simulque doctus per aliena experimenta, quōmodo arma sī iterum iniūriae futūrae sint. itaque causās bellōrum . incipiēns ā sē suīsque prīmum domum suam , quod minus arduum est quam prōvinciam regere. nihil publicae rēī faciēbat per lībertōs servōsque. nec ēlēgit centūriōnēs mīlitēsve prīvātīs aut aut , sed putābat optimum mīlitem quī fidissimum erat. omnia sciēbat, sed nōn semper petēbat.
In Episode 18.1, you were introduced to a new clause: the cum clause. Generally cum clauses are paired with two tenses of the subjunctive – the imperfect and the pluperfect. Thankfully both of these subjunctive tenses are very easy to recognize while inside of a cum clause. Remember that all cum clauses, of course, begin with the word 'cum'.
Consider first cum + imperfect subjunctive:
cum Cogidubnus in sellā sedēret , omnēs stābant.
When Cogidubnus was sitting in the chair, everyone was standing.
cum Recentiī fugerent , Marcus erat īrātus.
Since the Recentiī were fleeing, Marcus was angry.
Let's look carefully at the two imperfect subjunctive verbs above: sedēret and fugerent. Notice anything interesting about them? Both of these verbs are formed in the same way. For imperfect subjunctive verbs, Operatives need only to recognize two things they are already quite familiar with – the present infinitive and the standard third person endings.
sedēre → sedēret
fugere → fugerent
The imperfect subjunctive is formed in that standard way for every verbs. It really is that simple. If you need more review, check out this video briefing courtesy of latintutorial.com.
Now, let's turn our attention to the pluperfect subjunctive inside of a cum clause. Consider the following:
cum Tiberius in Britanniā advēnisset, Salvius ad Marcum epistulam mīsit.
When Tiberius had arrived in Brtiannia, Salvius sent a letter to Marcus.
cum tīrōnēs ad Aegyptium navigāvissent, Recentiōs cum Tertiō vīsērunt.
Since the henchmen had sailed to Egypt, they saw the Recentiī with Tertius.
Operatives should notice three simple components to the pluperfect subjunctive:
- the perfect stem
- -isse- as a marker of the pluperfect subjunctive
- the standard third person endings -t, -nt
Thankfully the pluperfect subjunctive is even more recognizable than the imperfect. Operatives should attune themselves to both forms as quickly as possible – they are very common in Latin!
Luckily for all operatives, there is another video briefing from latintutorial.com. Check it out!
Operative, the TSTT is clearly looking for you to get deeper into the story of the Gracchi than you have before. Gaius Gracchus is talking about his brother, so let's get you started by taking a look at a selection from Plutarch's Lives.
It also appears that the TSTT wishes you to question whether or not the effects that the type of populism which embodied the Gracchi brothers was a benefit to the Roman people. Did Lucius Opimius have any other choice?
Directions: Please make the following forms subjunctive. Be sure to note the tense!
Directions: Choose the correct form of the verb and then translate the sentence.
1. bellātorēs, cum Recentiōs cum Septimō ambulāntēs (cōnspectābant, cōnspexissent, cōnspexērunt), statim impetum fēcērunt.
2. cum Recentiī bellātorēs appropinquantēs (vīdērunt, vidēbant, vidērent), in silvam currēbant.
3. cum Brigāntēs liberī Rōmānōs numquam ante (vīdērant, vidēret, vīdissent), ē casīs timide exiērunt.
4. nōn fuerat difficile Agricolae bellum gerere cum (fuisset, fuerat, fuit) fortis callidusque.
5. populus C. Gracchum amābat cum Gaius frumentum pretiīs minoribus (aestimāret, aestimābat, aestimāverat).
Directions: Using the immersion for 18.2, please answer the following questions.
1. cum Gaius rogaret turbae stare secum, quid dicebant spectatores?
2. quid accidit cum Gaius de LAPIDE diceret?
3. quid accidit cum ad rostra advēnistis?
4. quid accidit cum Sinistrus Gaium rogāret?